Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous Theory X and Y models in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise' (1960).
|Theory X||Theory Y|
|Assumptions||Humans inherently dislike working and will try to avoid it if they can.||People view work as being as natural as play and rest. Humans expend the same amount of physical and mental effort in their work as in their private lives.|
|Because people dislike work they have to be coerced or controlled by management and threatened so they work hard enough.||Provided people are motivated, they will be self-directing to the aims of the organization. Control and punishment are not the only mechanisms to make people work.|
|Average employees want to be directed.||Job satisfaction is key to engaging employees and ensuring their commitment.|
|People don't like responsibility.||People learn to accept and seek responsibility. Average humans, under the proper conditions, will not only accept but even naturally seek responsibility.|
|Average humans are clear and unambiguous and need security at work.|| People are imaginative and creative. Their
ingenuity should be used to solve problems at work.
|Application||Shop Floor, Mass Manufacturing - Production Workers||Professional Services, Knowledge Workers - Managers and Professionals|
|Conducive to||Large scale efficient operations||Management of Professionals, Participative Complex Problem Solving|
|Management Style||Authoritarian, Hard Management||Participative, Soft Management|
McGregor sees Theory Y as the preferable model and management method, however he felt it was difficult to use in large-scale operations.
In 1981, William Ouchi came up with a variant that combined American and Japanese management practices together to form Theory Z, having the following characteristics: long-term employment - c ollective decision making - individual responsibility - slow evaluation & promotion - implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures - moderately specialized career paths - and a holistic concern for the employee, including family.
Compare with Theory X Theory Y: Leadership Styles | Leadership Continuum | Bases of Social Power | Hierarchy of Needs | Expectancy Theory | Path-Goal Theory | ERG Theory | Herzberg Two Factor Theory | Change Management | Seven Surprises | Seven Habits | Eight Attributes of Management Excellence | Five Disciplines | Ten Principles of Reinvention | Fourteen Points of Management
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